The word state and its cognates in some other European languages (stato in Italian, estado in Spanish and Portuguese, état in French, Staat in German) ultimately derive from the Latin word status, meaning "condition, circumstances". Miliband, Ralph. [65][66], Anarcho-capitalists such as Murray Rothbard come to some of the same conclusions about the state apparatus as anarchists, but for different reasons. The origin of political science comes from the term “political” is derived from the Greek word “polis” which means “city” and “science” comes from the Latin term“ scire”. In this line of argument, the state allows a population to resolve a collective action problem, in which citizens recognize the authority of the state and this exercise the power of coercion over them. As a result, these decentralization of social control impedes to consolidate strong states. During Medieval times in Europe, the state was organized on the principle of feudalism, and the relationship between lord and vassal became central to social organization. [3][4], Some states are sovereign (known as sovereign states), while others are subject to external sovereignty or hegemony, wherein supreme authority lies in another state.[5]. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Definition of Political Science The term political science refers to that branch of social science which is analogous to the foundation of state and system of government. According to John Locke, the goal of the state/commonwealth was "the preservation of property" (Second Treatise on Government), with 'property' in Locke's work referring not only to personal possessions but also to one's life and liberty. The concept of temple states centred on religious shrines occurs in some discussions of the ancient world. Both Hobbes and Bodin thought they were defending the power of kings, not advocating for democracy, but their arguments about the nature of sovereignty were fiercely resisted by more traditional defenders of the power of kings, such as Sir Robert Filmer in England, who thought that such defenses ultimately opened the way to more democratic claims. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership, https://www.britannica.com/topic/state-sovereign-political-entity, state government - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), state government - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). [24] (Compare confederacies or confederations such as Switzerland.) Some states are often labeled as "weak" or "failed". Students in Political Science at Illinois State University have some of the greatest opportunities for learning and growth, both as individuals and within the field as a whole. In David Samuels's words "...a failed state occurs when sovereignty over claimed territory has collapsed or was never effectively at all". Locke said that the state is the social contract by which individuals agree not to infringe on each other’s “natural rights” to life, liberty, and property, in exchange for which each man secures his own “sphere of liberty.”. The third is rational-legal authority, whereby legitimacy is derived from the belief that a certain group has been placed in power in a legal manner, and that their actions are justifiable according to a specific code of written laws. Here political theorists subject beliefs abo… Anarchists believe that the state is inherently an instrument of domination and repression, no matter who is in control of it. These estates of the realm sometimes evolved in the direction of fully-fledged parliaments, but sometimes lost out in their struggles with the monarch, leading to greater centralization of lawmaking and military power in his hands. Dahl called this kind of state a polyarchy. Agriculture and writing are almost everywhere associated with this process: agriculture because it allowed for the emergence of a social class of people who did not have to spend most of their time providing for their own subsistence, and writing (or an equivalent of writing, like Inca quipus) because it made possible the centralization of vital information. Students who choose the international relations concentration focus on the politics within sovereign states and between states at the regional and global level. Courses in history, geography and economics support coursework in international and comparative politics to foster an understanding of how culture, history, location and resources influence how states act within the international system. [62], Most political theories of the state can roughly be classified into two categories. 1983. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. [5] Many states are federated states which participate in a federal union. the Central African Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Dominican Republic, the United Arab Emirates, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Canada, Georgia, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Jamaica, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Montenegro, New Zealand, Romania, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, the Solomon Islands, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Ukraine. Montana State University P.O. [105] This fragmentation of the social order induced a political logic in which these states were captured to some extent by "strongmen", who were capable to take advantage of the above-mentioned changes and that challenge the sovereignty of the state. Because the result of aiming at individual purposes is disagreement, a healthy (noncorrupting) state can exist only when the common good is recognized as the goal. It is introduced to Middle English c. 1200 both from Old French and directly from Latin. He felt that the modern state plays a large role in structuring the economy, by regulating economic activity and being a large-scale economic consumer/producer, and through its redistributive welfare state activities. [74] The Communist Manifesto claimed that the state to be nothing more than "a committee for managing the common affairs of the bourgeoisie. Workers residing in France., Exports from Greece ….[46]. The Greek city-states before the 4th century granted citizenship rights to their free population, and in Athens these rights were combined with a directly democratic form of government that was to have a long afterlife in political thought and history. The peer-reviewed journal Politics & Policy recently published an article by Dr. Rollin F. Tusalem, associate professor of political science, "State Regulation of Religion and the Quality of Governance. In time, the word lost its reference to particular social groups and became associated with the legal order of the entire society and the apparatus of its enforcement. It created a climate for the ideas of the 17th-century reformers like John Locke in England and Jean-Jacques Rousseau in France, who began to reexamine the origins and purposes of the state. Various social contract theories have been proffered to establish state legitimacy and to explain state formation. The concept of the nation-state, theoretically or ideally co-terminous with a "nation", became very popular by the 20th century in Europe, but occurred rarely elsewhere or at other times. "[19] And that "[t]he federal state shall constitute a sole person in the eyes of international law. Anarchism is a political philosophy which considers the state and hierarchies to be immoral, unnecessary and harmful and instead promotes a stateless society, or anarchy, a self-managed, self-governed society based on voluntary, cooperative institutions. and that civil society was the nexus connecting the economic and political sphere. State of nature, in political theory, the real or hypothetical condition of human beings before or without political association. It focuses on human nature and the moral purposes of political association. Electoral process quite large land areas had been indiscriminately applied and indeed may be restricted to a limited sphere monopolistic! 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